This blog covers all the government stages and basic steps of new building construction designing. If you are looking or planning for the new house construction then by following this you will be able to handle the housing project in a better way and efficiently.
- Make contact with Registered Engineer or Consultancy
First and foremost, you need to find an Architect/Engineer either he/she is a freelancer or he/she is in any engineering consultancy. Generally, almost in all Local government, every engineer has their own contact to design the building.
2. Site Visit and Field Measurement/verification
Locating land for constructing your dream home is very important. For better houses and compounds you have to have a minimum Land area of 4 Ana. More the land better it is. Take an original print of Cadastral Map (trace map) of your land from the Malpot office and verify it from Municipality or Malpot’s land surveyor. (i.e. चार किल्ला प्रमाणित)
Always take the advice of an Architect/Engineer with sound knowledge in Vaastu, soil condition.
3. Design Process
Before going to the design, you need to finalize the rough requirement list for your home. You should supervise the basic concept of your home, such as room size, living space, staircase position, guest bedrooms, hall, kitchen, Bathrooms, Car garage/parking, garden/landscaping. You should take suggestions from your family and friends. It is better you visit your relatives, neighbors, and friends to talk about their experience and possible suggestion. After Finalizing the Design, you will have a following of the options under the Mandatory rule of thumb.
If your house is above 3 story, unsymmetrical, minimum center to center span of the column is greater than 4.5m, Total Plinth area is Greater then 1000 sq. ft. you must follow the Detailed architectural Drawing, Detailed Structural Analysis Report, Detailed Structural Drawings. Detailed Electrical Drawings, Detailed Sanitary Drawings.
If your house doesn’t fall under the above specification and is under the Mandatory rule of thumb then you will only have to have 3 sets of Architectural drawing and Structural Drawings.
4. Municipality Process
After Completing the detailed drawing, you need to submit the drawing with a Municipality Naksa Book with each detail. The following are the general requirements with the map to be submitted in the municipality.
- ३ प्रति नक्सा
- नक्सा किताबमा सम्पुर्ण भरेका ( You have to buy a book from Municipality Office)
- नागरिकता प्रमाणपत्र Photocopy
- लालपुर्जा Photocopy
- नापी नक्सा सक्कल
- चार किल्ला प्रमाणित
- मालपेतमा कर बुझाएके प्रमाण प्रतिलिपि
- नगरपालिकामा कर तिरेके प्रतिलिपि
- Two Passport Size Photo of an Owner
- इन्जिनियर वा कन्सल्टेन्सिके दर्ता प्रमाण पत्र
- वारेस भए वारेसनामा
After submitting all the documents to the Municipality Engineer they will look at the design and drawing weather the design is under municipality by-laws or not. If the design follows the rules of the municipality and Nepal Building code then they will forward the document to the ward and Ward Engineer will fill up the 4 side neighbor to notice them for 15 days and the owner has to bring the signature of 4 side neighbor in the book.
If nobody has any issues with your construction in the proposed location of the house within 15 days then you again have to visit to the Municipality office ask the engineer for सरजमिन (i.e. Checking if the building site plan is as per the site or not. Is the Right of way of the road is as per the rule and drawing or not) and Pay the government tax as per the rule? You will receive अस्थाइ नक्सा प्रमाणपत्र (which is a building permit ).
5. Building Contractor
Finding a good building contractor is as important as finding a good Architect/Engineer. In some of the Local Government, they have a well-trained contractor registered for the building construction. You have to identify a contractor who has a service of civil construction, plumber, mechanical, electrical, painting and Working on aesthetics. People always search for a low-cost contractor which leads to dissatisfaction and conflict in the process of building. But if you can find a good, reliable and reasonable contractor you can save both money and time. Always as his method of working and check how reliable he is. Also, take a recommendation from an engineer and those who have recently built their own house.
6. Construction Process
- Site Clearance: Before starting any construction work the most necessary work is site clearance and make the site plain.
- Layout: Layout means preparing the plain area for the foundation as per the design drawing. Generally, a white Powder, strong white thread are used to the layout.
- Foundation: Earth excavation for trench and footing following soling, PCC, Laying and erecting Reinforcement for the Footing followed by firm works and concreting. In the First Tie beam, RCC will be done then stone/brick wall is constructed. After completing the wall and tie beam, the Plinth beam will be constructed with a Waterproof mixed in concrete.
- DPC: DPC means Damp Proof course which is a barrier through the structure designed to prevent moisture rising by capillary action such as through a phenomenon known as rising damp. Rising damp is the effect of water rising from the ground into the property. So, after compacting the soil soling is done and a well-mixed concrete with waterproof is poured.
7. Site Inspection from Designer and Municipality Engineer
After completing the DPC work owner has to call for the designer to fill the form requesting थाइ नक्सा प्रमाण पत्र. The Designer will carefully measure the dimension and fill-up the form. The form needs to be submitted to the Municipality. After looking at the form Municipality engineer will come and finalize the construction as per the design drawing. Then Owner will receive थाइ नक्सा प्रमाण पत्र which is a superstructure building permit.
The superstructure includes a column, beam, slab, and brickworks. Each structure should be constructed as per the structural drawings to provide strength for carrying the dead load and live load expected to come on the various parts of the structure in a safe and well-distributed manner. The roof slab necessarily has to have a waterproof in the concrete or waterproofing coatings.
9. Electrical and Lighting
During the slab, reinforcement lighting should be placed as per the design in each room and stairs. Each wire-like electrical wire, internet cable, Television cable, telephone cable, and solar wire should be in the same pipe. So that it will not ruin the beauty of your house. Plumbing also should be done according to the sanitary drawings.
10. Interior Design
Design can be prepared during the design process or work can be executed according to the supervision by the architect.
After completing the brickwork, initial electrical and plumbing work cement plaster should be used with a 12 mm thickness to 20 mm thickness.
12. Initial Plumbing
Plumbing also should be done according to the sanitary drawings.
It is done with cement primer after the initial wiring and plumbing are done.
14. Flooring and Tile marble
Flooring works can be done after the initial wiring works and the primer coat is finished to the interior walls. If you are planning to put a carpet then it is okay with only cement punning. Generally, In Kitchen and Roof Marble, Wood or Epoxy flooring is used. At the same time, marble and railing are done in the staircase and Toilet Bathrooms.
15. Interior furnishing
Interior works can be done as per the budget of the owner.
16. Finishing Electrical, Lightning, and Plumbing works
These are the final work of the house and done after finishing coat of paint.
17. Septic and Water tank Construction
It is always better to construct a reserve tank with rainwater collection. All the plumbing are needs to be well connected to the septic tank and then to the municipality sewer line if available.
18. Request for Electric meter and water connection:
You are able to request an electric meter to a new house from the Nepal Electricity Authority branch. Also, you have to apply for the water meter.
19. Completion Certificate
After completing the overall construction of a house designer engineer will visit the site and take a detailed measurement if the constructed house is as per the design drawing or not. Then the filled form along with 4 printed photos of the house from all the directions should be submitted. Then the Municipality Engineer will visit and check the form with a design drawing. If the design is as per the drawing owner will get the Completion certificate.
20. Landscaping and Boundary Wall
Once the construction is complete there’s still the landscaping is to be done. Walkways, rainwater gutter, Compound wall, gate, laying grass bed and planting trees as well as outdoor lighting should be considered
All the leftover debris from the construction process on the interior and exterior of the home should be removed or should be used in any other construction work.
22. Moving In
Hurray, You have made it to this. You need to take a good साइत for Puja before moving in, that is what every Nepali family does.